System hacking is the way hackers get access to individual computers on a network. Ethical hackers learn system hacking to detect, prevent, and counter these types of attacks.

Companies recruit ethical hackers to identify vulnerabilities in their systems in order to upgrade their cybersecurity practices.

What is Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks.

The basic concept of cybersecurity involves understanding the meaning of cybersecurity, threats to cybersecurity like malware, phishing, social engineering, etc, prevention against such threats, and understanding the importance of cybersecurity in the modern world.

The importance of Cybersecurity

The necessity of cybersecurity continues to grow as the number of users, devices, and programs in the modern enterprise grow, along with the rising deluge of data, most of which is sensitive or confidential. The problem is the increasing number and sophistication of cyber attackers and attack tactics.

In order to implement cybersecurity in a company server, one must set certain security goals. One of the ways to meet security goals is to recognize the concepts of the CIA Triad.

The CIA Triad

The CIA Triad consists of the three most crucial components of cybersecurity; Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

This model is intended to guide an organization’s Cyber Security policy in the field of information security.


Confidentiality refers to an organization’s efforts to keep its data private or secret. In practice, it’s about controlling access to data to prevent unauthorized disclosure. Typically, this involves ensuring that only those who are authorized have access to specific assets and that those who are unauthorized are actively prevented from obtaining access.


Integrity is about ensuring that data has not been tampered with and, therefore, can be trusted.

It means that the data within the transit should not be changed, altered, deleted, or illegally being accessed. To cope with data loss or accidental deletion or even cyberattacks, regular backups should be there.


Availability means that networks, systems, and applications are up and running. It ensures that authorized users have timely, reliable access to resources when they are needed.

Security Controls

Security controls exist to reduce or mitigate the risk to those assets. Security assets are any data, device, or other component t that supports information related to activities.

There are three main types of security controls.


Physical controls describe anything tangible that’s used to prevent or detect unauthorized access to physical areas, systems, or assets.

This includes things like fences, gates, guards, security badges and access cards, biometric access controls, security lighting, CCTVs, surveillance cameras, motion sensors, fire suppression, as well as environmental controls like HVAC and humidity controls.


Logical controls (also known as Technical controls) include hardware or software mechanisms used to protect assets.

Some common examples are authentication solutions, firewalls, antivirus software, intrusion detection systems (IDSs), intrusion protection systems (IPSs), constrained interfaces, as well as access control lists (ACLs), and encryption measures.


Administrative controls refer to policies, procedures, or guidelines that define personnel or business practices in accordance with the organization’s security goals.

These can apply to employee hiring and termination, equipment and Internet usage, physical access to facilities, separation of duties, data classification, and auditing. Security awareness training for employees also falls under the umbrella of administrative controls.

Threats and vulnerabilities

Cyber threats are security incidents or circumstances with the potential to have a negative outcome for your network or other data management systems. Such as phishing attacks, malware, data breach, or even someone who physically smashed your company’s data headquarters, disrupting access.

Vulnerabilities are the gaps or weaknesses in a system that make threats possible and tempt threat actors to exploit them. Types of vulnerabilities in network security include but are not limited to SQL injections, server misconfigurations, cross-site scripting, and transmitting sensitive data in a non-encrypted plain text format.

What is IAAA?

Does the security in systems actually work? Well, security generally works on a principle called IAAA;


Identification is the process of ascribing a user identifier (ID) to a human being or to another computer or network component. In computer systems, specific IDs need to be linked to particular authorized users of those IDs.


Authentication is the process of binding an ID to a specific entity. Passwords are widely used in practice and will continue to be a dominant form of user authentication.


Authorization is a security mechanism to determine access levels or user/client privileges related to system resources including files, services, computer programs, data, and application features.


The principle that an individual is entrusted to safeguard and control equipment, keying material, and information and is answerable to proper authority for the loss or misuse of that equipment or information.

Ethical hacking is among the most exciting IT jobs any person can be involved in. And if it is something that you are passionate about, you should start by learning the foundation and basis of Cybersecurity. Hope this article has helped you make the first step towards ethical hacking.

Have a nice day!

Software Engineering Undergraduate